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经典诗歌英译:《孔雀东南飞》  

2013-08-13 19:07:46|  分类: 学习园地 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  经典诗歌英译:《孔雀东南飞

  作者:赵彦春


  A Pair of Peacocks Southeast Fly


  During the reign of Jian An, the Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu, wife of Jiao Zhong-qing, a clerk in the Hujiang Prefecture, vowed not to remarry after being cast off by Jiao’s mother. She drowned herself when pressured by her own family. At the bad news, Zhong-qing hanged himself on a tree in his court. A contemporary, so moved, indited this in their memory.


  A pair of peacocks southeast fly,
  Each five li, they whirl and linger.
  “At thirteen I could shuttles ply;
  At fourteen I learned to tailor.
  At fifteen the zithern I played;
  At sixteen books I would recite,
  At sev’nteen your wife I was made.
  My heart now suffers a great blight!
  Since your serve the public, my groom,
  As a wife I shall ne’er turn light.
  When roosters crow I start the loom,
  And I cannot take breath till night.
  Five days’ work I finish in three,
  And yet your mother chides me still.
  I work without stop like a bee;
  Her requirements I cannot fill.
  Now that I can’t serve her all right,
  It is pointless for me to stay.
  So tell your mother down right
  And let her just send me away.”

  Zhong-qing felt sorry hearing such,
  And told his mother in the hall:
  “As a clerk I do not earn much;
  With her I’m the luckiest of all.
  Since we lead a conjugal life,
  We’ll stay fast where’er it may be.
  It’s years since she became my wife,
  But it ’s a flash it seems to me.
  I find nothing wrong she has done.
  Why are you to her so unkind? ”
  The mother replied to her son:
  “What a trifle matter you mind!
  This woman knows nothing polite
  And she is self-willed and headstrong.
  I can’t keep my temper at her sight;
  How can you feel at ease for long?
  Our east neighbor has a girl fair,
  Her name, I know, is Qin Luo-fu.
  Her beauty ranks beyond compare;
  I will propose a match for you.
  Go and show the slattern the door
  And send her packing right away.”
  He fell on his knees to implore
  With not so many words to say:
  “Send my wife away if you will,
  But I will ne’er, ne’er remarry.”
  Now his mother could not keep still
  And she struck her bed in fury:
  “What an impious, useless son;
  How dare you appeal for her sake!
  As for sympathy I have none,
  And compromise I shall ne’er make.”

  He fell dumb as his hope had died;
  He, bowing, went back to his door.
  He uttered something to his bride
  In a voice not calm any more:
  “Of course, It’s not I that drive you,
  But my mother who pushes most.
  Please go back for days, just a few.
  Now I must be off for my post.
  I will be coming back ere long
  And fetch you home without delay
  It ‘s my mind and a mind so strong.
  Just go and I mean what I say.”
  The bride replied so to her man:
  “Do not take trouble any more
  When winter ended, spring began:
  I left home and came to your door.
  In all things Mother I obey;
  In no cases do I presume.
  I labor like mad night and day,
  And my constitution consume.
  I’m not to blame, with no doubt,
  For I’m filial in the main.
  All the same I will be cast out;
  What’s the use coming here again?
  An embroidered sash I’ll leave thee,
  On which colors shine on their own
  And a scarlet gauze curtain wee,
  Whose corners have perfume bags sewn.
  I have scores of trunks and coffers,
  Whereon turquoise silk strings are strung.
  Of these things each from each differs
  And every kind lies there-among.
  Now I’m base, all my things are low,
  They are unworthy of your bride new.
  You can on someone else bestow,
  Because we shall ne’er meet anew.
  Or they can be a good keepsake;
  Let us in each other’s mind stay.”
  As roosters crew, it would soon break.
  Lan-zhi rose and put on array.
  Her embroidered skirt brightly glows;
  Nothing has been prepared pell-mell.
  Her tender feet wear silken shoes;
  On her head shines the tortoise shell.
  Her slim waist looks like a cloud white;
  Lunar earrings clink on her ears.
  Her creamy fingers do look slight;
  Ruby rouge on her lips appears.
  Bit by bit she moves her feet small;
  The gait is just beyond compare.
  She thanked the mother in the hall;
  The old woman seemed not to care.
  “When I was a girl very small,
  In my poor village I ran wild.
  So manners I know not at all,
  Unworthy of your son so mild.
  You’ve treated me in a big way,
  And yet I fall short and now leave.
  I’m going back home just today;
  And leave you all the chores I grieve. ”
  To his sister she said good-bye
  While pearly tears from her eyes shed.
  “When as a bride I first came by
  You came to stroke our nuptial bed.
  Now I ’m cast out of the threshold
  And you’ve grown as tall as I.
  Please take care of Mother, who’s old;
  To be a good girl you should try.
  When you have fun with a light heart
  On festive days, bear me in mind.”
  She stepped onto the waiting cart;
  A hundred tears she left behind.

  Jiao Zhong-qing rode a horse astride;
  Far behind her cart dragged along.
  Thus from worldly eyes they could hide.
  On the crossroads they met ere long.
  Dismounting, he entered the cart
  And said to her bending his head:
  “I vow from you I will ne’er part!
  Go back a while, just go ahead.
  I’m going to my post right now.
  But you’ll soon come back to our house,
  And we will ne’er, ne’er part, I vow. ”
  Lan-zhi replied to her dear spouse:
  “Your love I do appreciate.
  If your faith of love remains fast,
  Please come back before it’s too late.
  Like rock you should stand all the blast,
  And resist rapids and storms rough.
  I will be a willow twig so pliant,
  That, thin like silk thread, remains tough,
  A-clinging to the boulder giant
  My brother has a temper hot;
  He’ll be unkind to me, I fear.
  However, give way I will not
  Thus they waved with feelings dear.

  She reached her mother’s in this guise,
  Feeling so embarrassed and shy.
  Her mother clapped hands in surprise:
  “Alas, you come back alone, why?
  At thirteen you could weave brocade;
  At fourte0en you learned how to sew.
  At fifteen the zithern you played;
  At sixteen all etiquette you knew.
  At sev’nteen you became a bride.
  You vowed women’s rules you’d obey;
  How I was overfilled with pride!
  Why did you come alone today?
  You must have erred in word or deed.”
  So put to?shame, Lan-zhi replied:
  “Mother, I’ve done no wrong indeed.”
  At this her mother sadly cried.
  Since she came back ten days had gone;
  The magistrate’s agent came here:
  “Our magistrate has a third son,
  Who is handsome without a peer.
  Though eighteen or nineteen years old,
  He’s many talents at command.”
  Thus the mother her daughter told:
  “In this case you may give your hand.”
  Lan-zhi tried to from tears refrain:
  “When I first left home and came by,
  My man told me once and again:
  We’d ne’er part even if we die.
  Should I betray his trust today,
  I must regret for e’er I fear.
  To the matchmaker please say nay,
  And say to him gently and clear.”
  Her mother the go-between so told:
  “My daughter’s doomed to a low life,
  Sent back lately to the household;
  She is not fit as a clerk’ wife.
  How can we match a magistrate?
  Please go somewhere else to inquire;
  She ’s not worthy to be his mate.
  Do have a good one from a squire.”
  Soon after the go-between went,
  Came another from the mayor.
  So uttered the messenger sent:
  You have an official forbear.
  The mayor’s blessed with a fifth son,
  Who’s still a single gentleman,
  And in beauty second to none;
  I would make a match if I can.
  The mayor’s scribe clearly told me
  That the lad loves your daughter fair,
  And wants me a go-between to be.
  So I have come for this affair.
  The moth’r thanked him in profusion:
  “My daughter has a plighted word;
  How can I make the decision?”
  Lan-zhi’s brother this dialogue heard,
  And it disturbed his worldly mind.
  At his sister he chid and swore:
  “If you say nay what will you find?
  Forget the clerk you wed before.
  A woman should realize her worth;
  How lucky you meet a gent now.
  Your fate’s fixed like heaven and earth;
  To honor yourself it ’s enow.
  If you refuse, where will you go? ”
  Lan-zhi replied raising her head:
  “Certainly, the reason is so;
  The matter stands me in good stead.
  I left you and my husband served,
  And came back to your house midway.
  Brother I’d obey unreserved,
  How can I your idea gainsay?
  Though with my man I made the vow,
  I fear we’ll stay apart for e’er.
  I accept the proposal now.
  Please arrange the wedding affair.”
  The matchmaker came down the bed,
  Overfilled with satisfaction.
  Then to the mayor he went ahead:
  “I have accomplished the mission.”
  The news so delighted the mayor
  That he found an almanac soon.
  “I’ll fix a day for this affair.
  Well, it’s all right within this moon.
  Auspicious is the thirtieth day;
  It’s twenty seven now, my son.
  Please get ready in full array,
  I’ll make your wedding a good one.”
  Quests swarmed here like clouds afloat.
  Lo, pennants flutter with the breeze
  On the deck of the ornate boat,
  Where the painted birds fly with ease.
  Oh, gold inlaid coach and steeds strong,
  Tassels and saddles carved with gold.
  Three million coins all with silk strung,
  And satins, brocades manifold,
  Dainties obtained from climes far-flung,
  And oth’r dowers in colors gay.
  With cortege several hundred strong,
  The long procession makes its way.
  The mother told her in time due:
  “Just now I heard word from the mayor.
  Tomorrow they’ll come to fetch you;
  Why not your wedding dress prepare? ”
  Her mother’s push started her grief;
  In silence she lowered her head,
  And checked her sobs with a kerchief.
  All the same like rain her tears shed.
  She moved her glazed table and stools,
  And placed them beneath her window.?
  With silk, satin and sewing tools
  She began to make her trousseau.
  A jacket she made in the morn,
  And a satin dress at nightfall.
  The sun sinking made her forlorn;
  She came out and started to squall.

  The clerk heard what was being done;
  He asked leave and came right away.
  Scarcely had his horse one mile run
  When it uttered an anguished neigh.
  The familiar neigh reached her ear;
  She moved to meet him on tiptoe.
  Far away she tried hard to peer.
  It was her husband she did know.
  She stroke the horse with affection
  And complained with a woeful sigh.
  “Things have thwarted expectation
  Since we each to each said good-bye.
  The course of things is out of hand;
  It’s not turned out as hoped before.
  My impasse you may understand
  Let me explain to you my sore.
  Deny mother I hardly can;
  Brother is as fierce as can be.
  He’s engaged me to anoth’r man;
  What else can you expect of me? ”?
  At this the clerk to ex-wife said:
  “Congratulations on your luck.
  A boulder ’s as steady as laid;
  It stands for aeons howe’er struck.
  A sallow’s tough but for a time;
  It will break when force is there hurled.
  Just enjoy your highness and prime.
  I’ll alone enter the neth’r world.”
  And Lan-zhi her ex-husband told:
  “What relentless words you say!
  We are both forced, with no foothold.
  If you go down, how can I stay?
  Let’s meet in the neth’r world ere long
  To keep what we have said today.”
  They, touching hands, went back headlong
  To their homes, the separate way.
  The couple would meet after death.
  O sad, sad, what a tragic tale!
  Divided, they’d breathe their last breath
  Rather than live to no avail.

  As soon as he reached his household
  He kowtowed to Moth’r in the hall:
  “Today the high wind blows so cold;
  The cold wind has blown the trees fall;
  The orchids in the court will freeze.
  I feel my life will end today
  Just the same with the fallen trees.
  O it’s what the forebodings say.
  Don’t blame gods or ghosts; it’s my will.
  I regret I’ll leave you alone.
  May you live as long as the South Hill
  And remain healthy flesh and bone.”
  Now the mother was drowned in tears:
  “You were born for a noble life
  And you have bright, bright future years.
  You should not die for a mere wife.
  Don’t you remember Qin Luo-fu?
  In beauty she ranks number one.
  I’ll go and ask her hand for you;
  Sure, a reply will come anon. ”
  He bowed again, with all respect,
  And returned to his lonely room.
  He vowed in heart, standing erect
  That he’d ne’er anew be a groom.
  To Lan-zhi came the wedding day,
  But sadness began to accrue.
  She heard cows low and horses neigh,
  And sighing, entered her tent blue.
  At dusk dark it so quickly fell;
  Sad, she tried to herself contain.
  “It ’s time in the oth’r world to dwell.
  My soul will go and corpse remain.”
  She doffed her shoes, lifting her dress
  And straight to the pool made her way.
  When the clerk learned this with distress.
  He knew they’d be parted for aye.
  Neath the court tree he paced in gloom,
  And, hung on a southeast bough, died.
  They were buried in the same tomb,
  As requested, on the mountainside.
  Pine trees were planted east and west,
  And parasol trees left and right.
  Their boughs o’erlap or stretch abreast,
  And leaves embrace each other tight,
  Wherein a couple of birds fly,
  Which are mandarin ducks by name.
  Heads raised to each other, they cry
  And every night they cry the same.
  Passers-by would prick up their ears;
  Widows oft wake up with dismay.
  Men and women in future years
  Ne’er, ne’er forget the bygone day.



  孔雀东南飞

  汉末建安中,庐江府小吏焦仲卿妻刘氏,为仲卿母所遣,自誓不嫁。其家逼之,乃投水而死。仲卿闻之,亦自缢于庭树。时人伤之,而为此辞也。

  孔雀东南飞,
  五里一徘徊。
  “十三能织素,
  十四学裁衣。
  十五弹箜篌,
  十六诵诗书。
  十七为君妇,
  心中长苦悲。
  君既为府吏,
  守节情不移。
  鸡鸣入机织,
  夜夜不得息。
  三日断五匹,
  大人故嫌迟。
  非为织作迟,
  君家妇难为。
  妾不堪驱使,
  徒留无所施。
  便可白公姥,
  及时相遣归。”
  府吏得闻之,
  堂上启阿母:
  “儿已薄禄相,
  幸复得此妇。
  结发同枕席,
  黄泉共为友。
  共事二三年,
  始尔未为久。
  女行无偏斜,
  何意致不厚?”
  阿母为府吏:
  “何乃太区区!
  此妇无礼节,
  举止自专由。
  吾意久怀忿,
  汝岂得自由?
  东家有贤女,
  自名秦罗敷。
  可怜体无比,
  阿母为汝求。
  便可速遣之,
  遣去甚莫留。
  府吏常跪告,
  伏惟启阿母:
  “今若遣此妇,
  终老不复取!”
  阿母得闻之,
  槌床便大怒:
  “小子无所谓,
  何敢助妇语!
  吾已失恩义,
  会不从相许!”

  府吏默无声,
  再拜还入户。
  举言谓新妇,
  哽咽不能语:
  “我自不驱卿,
  逼迫有阿母。
  卿但暂回家,
  我进且报府。
  不久当归还,
  还必相迎取。
  以此下心意,
  甚勿违我语。”
  新妇谓府吏:
  “勿复重纷纭!
  往昔初阳岁,
  谢家来贵门。
  奉事循公姥,
  进止敢自专?
  昼夜勤作息,
  伶俜萦苦辛。
  谓言无罪过,
  供养卒大恩。
  仍更被驱遣,
  何言复来还?
  妾有绣腰襦,
  葳蕤自生光。
  红罗复斗帐,
  四角垂香囊。
  箱帘六十七,
  绿碧青丝绳。
  物物各自异,
  种种在其中。
  人贱物也鄙,
  不足迎后人。
  留待作遗施,
  于今无会因。
  时时为安慰,
  久久莫相忘。”
  鸡鸣外欲曙,
  新妇起严妆。
  著我绣衩裙,
  事事四五通:
  足下蹑丝履,
  头上玳瑁光,
  腰若流纨素,
  耳著明月珰。
  指如削葱根,
  口如含朱丹。
  纤纤作细步,
  精妙事无双。
  上堂谢阿母,
  母听去不止:
  “昔作女儿时,
  生小出野里。
  本自无教训,
  兼愧贵家子。
  受母钱帛多,
  不堪母驱使。
  今日还家去,
  念母劳家里。”
  却与小姑别,
  泪落连珠子:
  “新妇初来时,
  小姑始扶床。
  今日被驱遣,
  小姑如我长。
  勤心养公姥,
  好自相扶将;
  初七及下九,
  嬉戏莫相忘。”
  出门登车去,
  涕落百余行。

  府吏马在前,
  新妇车在后,
  隐隐何甸甸,
  俱会大道口。
  下马入车中,
  低头共耳语:
  “誓不相隔卿!
  且暂还家去,
  我今且赴府。
  不久当还归,
  誓天不相负。”
  新妇谓府吏:
  “感君区区怀,
  君既若见录,
  不久望君来。
  君当作磐石,
  妾当作蒲苇。
  薄苇纫如丝,
  磐石无转移。
  我有亲父兄,
  性行暴如雷,
  恐不任我意,
  逆以煎我怀。”
  举手长劳劳,
  二情同依依。

  入门上家堂,
  进退无颜仪。
  阿母大拊掌:
  “不图子自归!
  十三教汝织,
  十四能裁衣,
  十五弹箜篌,
  十六知礼仪,
  十七遣汝嫁,
  谓言无誓违。
  汝今无罪过,
  不迎而自归?”
  兰芝惭阿母:
  “儿实无罪过。”
  阿母大悲摧。
  还家十余日,
  县令遣媒来。
  云“有第三郎,
  窈窕世无双,
  年始十八九,
  便言多令才。”
  阿母谓阿女:
  “汝可去应之。”
  阿女衔泪答:
  “兰芝初还时,
  府吏见丁宁,
  结誓不别离。
  今日违情义,
  恐此事非奇。
  自可断来信,
  徐徐更谓之。”
  阿母白媒人:
  “贫贱有此女,
  始适还家门;
  不堪吏人妇,
  岂合令郎君?
  幸可广问讯,
  不得便相许。”
  媒人去数日,
  寻遣丞请还,
  说“有兰家女,
  承籍有宦官。”
  云“有第五郎,
  骄逸未有婚。
  遣丞为媒人,
  主簿通语言。”
  直说太守家,
  有此令郎君,
  既欲结大义,
  故遣来贵门。
  阿姆谢媒人:
  “女子先有誓,
  老姥岂敢言?”
  阿兄得闻之,
  怅然心中烦,
  举言谓阿妹:
  “作计何不量!
  先嫁得府吏,
  后嫁得君郎,
  否泰如天地,
  足以荣汝身。
  不嫁义郎体,
  其往欲何云?”
  兰芝仰头答:
  “理实如兄言。
  谢家事夫婿,
  中道还兄门,
  处分适兄意,
  那得人自专?
  虽与府吏要,
  渠会永无缘!
  登即相许和,
  便可作婚姻。”
  媒人下床去,
  诺诺复尔尔。
  还部白府君:
  “下官奉使命,
  言谈大有缘。”
  府君得闻之,
  言谈大欢喜。
  视历复开书,
  便利此月内,
  六合正相应。
  “良吉三十日,
  今已二十七,
  卿可去成婚。”
  交语速装束,
  络绎如浮云。
  青雀白鹄舫,
  四角龙子幡,
  婀娜随风转。
  金车玉作轮,
  踯躅青骢马,
  流苏金镂鞍。
  赍钱三百万,
  皆用青丝穿。
  杂彩三百匹,
  交广市鲑珍。
  从人四五百,
  郁郁登郡门。
  阿母谓阿女:
  “始得府君书,
  明日来迎汝。
  何不作衣裳?
  莫令事不举!”
  阿女默无声,
  手巾掩口啼,
  泪落更如泻。
  移我琉璃榻,
  出置前窗下。
  左手持刀尺,
  右手执绫罗,
  朝成绣裌裙,
  完成单罗衫。
  晻晻日欲暝,
  愁思出门啼。

  府吏闻此变,
  因求假暂归。
  未至两三里,
  摧藏马悲哀。
  新妇识马声,
  蹑履相逢迎,
  怅然遥相望,
  知是故人来。
  举手拍马鞍,
  嗟叹使心伤:
  “自君别我后,
  人事不可量。
  果不如先愿,
  又非君所详。
  我有亲父母,
  逼迫兼阿兄;
  以我应他人,
  君还何所望!”
  府吏谓新妇:
  “贺卿得高迁!
  磐石方且厚,
  可以卒千年;
  蒲苇一时纫,
  便作旦夕间。
  卿当日胜贵,
  我独向黄泉。”
  新妇谓府吏:
  “何意出此言!
  同是被逼迫,
  君尔妾亦然。
  黄泉下相见,
  勿违今日言。”
  执手分道去,
  各各还家门。
  生人作死别,
  恨恨那可论!
  念与世间辞,
  千万不复全。


  府吏还家去,
  上堂拜阿母:
  “今日大风寒,
  寒风摧树木,
  严寒结庭兰。
  儿今日冥冥,
  令母在后单。
  故作不良计,
  勿复怨鬼神!
  命如南山石,
  四体康且直。”
  阿母得闻之,
  零泪应声落:
  “汝是大家子,
  仕宦于台阁。
  甚勿为妇死,
  贵贱情何薄!
  东家有贤女,
  窈窕艳城郭。
  阿母为汝求,
  便复在旦夕。”
  府吏再拜还,
  长叹空房中,
  作计乃尔立。
  转头向户里,
  渐见愁煎迫。
  其日牛马嘶,
  新妇入青庐。
  庵庵黄昏后,
  寂寂人定初。
  “我命绝今日,
  魂去尸长留。”
  揽裙脱丝履,
  举身赴清池。
  府吏闻此事,
  心知长别离。
  徘徊庭树下,
  自挂东南枝。
  两家求合葬,
  合葬华山傍。
  东西植松柏,
  左右种梧桐。
  枝枝相覆盖,
  叶叶相交通。
  中有双飞鸟,
  自名为鸳鸯;
  仰头相向鸣,
  夜夜达五更。
  行人驻足听,
  寡妇起彷徨。
  多谢后世人,
  戒之莫相忘。

  原文地址:http://www.24en.com/column/zhaoyanchun/2012-05-23/143985.html
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